Sunday, 23 April 2017

23rd April 1817: Jeffrey Lockett informs the Home Secretary that the wanted Luddite, Christopher Blackburn, is in Nottingham

Derby April 23d: 1817

My Lord

The death of a near relation of Mrs Mundy has taken Mr Mundy into Lincolnshire,— and in his absence I presume to inform your Lordship, that I have this morning received information, upon which I can depend, [Christopher] Blackburn is in the neighbourhood of Nottm and may be taken. Mr Mundy will be at Burton to night and I have sent a messenger to him with this intelligence. C. Blackburn was privy to the negotiation between F. Ward and Savage—and Mr Lacey's factory men, respecting the Loughbro’ outrage;—and he has some time past been in the confidence of F. Ward—G. Henson & other political Luddites. He will be very ready to give information and I will endeavour to get him taken with as much privacy as possible lest Ward [should] abscond upon hearing that he is in custody. White, Jukes, and Neale, (Mr Lacys factory men) who were the principal promoters of the Loughbro’ outrage and leading Hampden Club men, have been absent since the beginning of February.

I am happy to be able to assure your Lordship that there is every appearance of security in this part of the Country—There is now sufficient employment for the poor of every description—and the poor rates rapidly decreasing.

I have [etc]

Wm Jeffery Lockett

[To: Lord Sidmouth]

Tuesday, 18 April 2017

18th April 1817: The executed Luddites are buried in Nottingham & Chilwell

The Leicester Chronicle of Saturday 26th April 1817 reported the burial of the Luddites executed at Leicester, on the day following their hanging:
The bodies of the unfortunate men executed on Thursday the 17th instant, for the outrage at Loughborough arrived at Nottingham the following morning at three o'clock in two covered carts for interment. Mitchel, Amos, Withers, and Crowder were interred in St. Mary’s Church Yard: the former, (Mitchell), at about five o'clock in the morning, the latter three about five in the afternoon; and Savidge was interred in the New Burying Ground about the same hour as the latter, amidst great numbers of people. Towle was taken forward to Chilwell, near the place where his friends reside. 
Savage (aged 39) has left a wife and six children; Amos (aged 30) a wife and five children; Mitchell (aged 29) unmarried; Withers (aged 33) a wife and one child; these were natives of Nottingham. Towle (aged 22) a wife and one child a native of Chilwell. Crowder (aged 40) a wife and five children, a native of Leicester.

18th April 1817: Gratian Hart suspects a 'nest of refugee Luddites at Calais'

Friday Morng. [18th April 1817]

I have long some days, suspected there was a nest of refugee Luddites in Calais; the enclosed Letter appears to confirm it: it may be of great use, in fact, in my Opinion this Letter is important, and some one should come down and take them up this Writer; who could explain his meaning.

Your faithful
Obedient Servt
Gratian Hart

[To] Francis Freeling Esqr
&c &c &c

18th April 1817: The Nottingham Review reports the arrest of Gravenor Henson for High Treason

As a report has been in circulation for some days past, that Gravenor Henson and William Robinson, the persons who were deputed to carry the Petition to London, to be presented to the Prince Regent, in behalf of the unfortunate men who have suffered at Leicester, had been taken into custody, it may be proper to give a brief statement of the case, The aforesaid persons after their arrival in London, previous to their calling at Lord Sidmouth’s office, thought it advisable to call upon a gentleman to ask his influence and interest, to give the greater weight to the petition. This, Henson agreed to do himself, and Robinson was to wait for his return in St. James's Park. They had, however, no sooner separated, than a Crown Officer took Henson into custody: Robinson waited about three hours for his companion, in vain. He then returned to their inn, where he learned that an officer, in company with a Nottingham manufacturer, had been, and the officer had seized Henson's box with all its contents. Robinson immediately waited upon the manufacturer, and wished to have an explanation, and to know if there were any charge against him—and said he had no objection to go to the office of Secretary of State, to vindicate himself and explain. In consequence, an officer waiting on him on Saturday, to request his attendance there, but said he was not obliged to attend; however, Robinson chose the accompany the officer, and was introduced to Lord Sidmouth, to whom he stated his object in coming to London; and said he was not conscious of any charge being brought against himself or colleague. The Honourable Secretary, we understand, spoke in terms of approbation, of the frank and undisguised conduct of Robinson, and applauded his motives, but refused him all communication with Henson, who, it seems, is taken up on suspicion of High Treason. A messenger from the Crown arrived at this place on Saturday last, who entered Henson's house, and major a seizure of a variety of papers, which he sealed and took with him to London. Robinson was not arrested, nor his house searched. Henson is at present in Coldbath-fields prison. Such is the information handed to us, and which we believe to be correct.

Monday, 17 April 2017

17th April 1817: J Anderson of Notts writes to a Mr Wood at Calais, France "ned Is at Leister now And they can do As they like"

[To] Mr. Wood
at Mr. Thompsons
Bass Ville
Calais
France

Dear friend I Received your Letter yesterday dated 12th And I ham very sory that Mr. C. should look At it in that Light that Is factory might be considered A depot for they can be no depot whithout the Arms And other Instruments is lodged their Mr. C. whould find Im A very youseful young man for he is a very good hand either In wharp or point net And if he likes to take Im he need not be Afraid of Is factory or Any thing else for there As never been Any of them Advertised nor Is there likely to be for government Is tired of it only he cannot stay no where About here for our constables whould fetch Im Any where in England but they have got no orders to go any further he is not Afraid of Any body knowing Im because he As been Away from home ever since he whas young And therefore very few Nottingham people knows Im And he thinks he should be safe there And so do I think so he Is very mutch obliged to you for saying you will do every thing Lays in your power but he says he cannot expect you to maintain Im without work though Is parents will find Im enough to carry Im ten times As far As that And you know he Is a well drest young man And of good Aparance Is parents whant Im to go to America but he had rather come to you but stil he dose not like to come without Mr. C. would say he whould Imploy him as there Is no danger you may depend therefore he Is determined to wait here for Another Answer sooner then he will go to America, you must excuse me troubling you so mutch but we are forced to troble Any people now but he will pay you the expence of the Letters If he comes If you go up the country he Is Agreable to wait hear two or three weeks but you may depend he will be safe there If he comes And if he comes he will let you know that you may meet Im at the flying horse in calais and send whord whether he will be forced to get A pasport or not If he comes he thinks of staying In dover one day to wright to you to let you know what packet he shall come by that you may be there ready to carry Is clothes to prevent suspicion And to take him strait where you think fit dear friend will be so good As to Answer this As soon As possible you can if it is not trobling you to mutch—

I have some very unpleasant news to tel you whe sent a peticion up to government to save the lives of these unfortunate men that sufferd this day at Leister And whe sent it by gravener henson and Wm. Robinson And when they got there they seised gravener And put Im in the towr for I treason And told him that he had saved them troble of fetching Im so how he will get on we cannot say they gave Robinson Is answer that must have its cours but whe expect the pardon for the rest after a little time is past the men that suffer is Joshua Mitchel old crowder John Amos Thos savage Rodney Towle and william whithers slater Little Sam the desarter that worked with barton & another Basford Lad is transported for life the other 6 poor Lads suffer this day at twelve whe understand, be so good As troble Mr. C. this time And send word by return of Post And that will satisfy All trade is better here then it As been but they have begun to late And to tel us that ned Is at Leister now And they can do As they like Mr. & Mrs. henson and all give their respects to you & are all well direct as before

I remain your well wishing
friend

J. Anderson

Nott.
April 16. 1817

James Hobson 'The Last Luddite Executions, April 17th 1817'

Luddites destroyed machines in the Midlands in the period 1811-1816. These machines were destroying skilled jobs and emboldening the master manufacturers to treat their workers with contempt. The Luddites may have been wrong in their belief that they could hold back technological change, but they were organised and principled people who were trying to use their view of the world to bring back social justice. “Luddite” is used here as a badge of honour rather than a term of abuse.

The Luddite violence in Loughborough, Leicestershire was seen by the hostile press of the time as the worst outbreak of machine breaking since March 1811. It was in many ways an unusual example of machine breaking. The perpetrators were not local; this was the first time serious Luddism visited Loughborough; and there was not much love lost for the manufacturers who were the victim of violent protest either.

The lace factory of Heathcote (sometimes “Heathcoat”) and Boden was the target; and there may not have been a less popular pair of businessmen in Loughborough.  John Heathcote and John Boden were no ordinary textile entrepreneurs. Heathcote had invented and patented new technology that reproduced the work of skilled people making   good quality pillow lace at the fraction of the price; earlier Luddites attacks on lace making machines had been on Heathcote’s franchised machines. He was notorious as an exploiter of workers and fellow manufacturers, and his factory in Mill Street (where Loughborough Iceland) now stands, was an obvious target for Luddite resentment.

He employed six guards to protect his factory, but on the early morning of June 28th, they did not prove to be enough. About 30 people organised an attack in the early morning on June 28th. It was a well organised attacked, with men armed with blunderbusses, ramrods, and a detailed knowledge of the layout of the factory. How well organised was impossible to work out; it served the purposes of the hostile press to imply that it was a quasi-military organisation, with a captain on a horse with attackers having their own number; as it turned out most of the men called each other “Ned”

Heathcote and Boden were not popular locally. Heathcote and Boden had already reduced wages  of its 400 employees  in January and survived the subsequent strike (“general turn out”) but starvation and lack of alternatives had forced most to work; some previous workers were “ not accorded that privilege”, according to the loyalist Stamford Mercury. The owners had clearly blacklisted those deemed trouble-makers.

The Luddites attacked the machines because they were convinced that the bosses  had unfairly altered the relationship between masters and men  by exploiting the new technology to reduce wages, although it may be that the company’s reason for reducing wages was the loss of revenue from  other manufacturers stealing their technology. The company, being hated by both capital and labour, were making plans to leave Loughborough even before the attack, having annoyed both lace masters and lace makers. It may have been that the master lace makers even encouraged the attack.

John Asher and two others were guarding the entrance to Heathcote and Boden. John was the first to the pistol and fired at “Ned’s Band” and one of them replied with a blunderbuss and shot Asher in the back of the head; all three guards were disarmed and guarded as the majority pushed their way through to the factory. Five other men were forced to lay prostrate on the floor as 53 lace knitting machine were destroyed to the replacement cost of over £8000 pounds. The whole event took no more than 45 minutes.

The attackers taunted the guards that were lying helplessly on the floor.

Now men, if you can tell us of any machines that are working under price, if it be one hundred or two off, we will   go and break them......

All’s well, Ned Ludd, do your duty well, it’s a Waterloo job by g-d !

The serious nature of this outbreak could be judged by the response. The local constables patrolled the streets and ordered locals not to extinguish their lights to help the Luddites escape; homes were raided and pubs were closed at 9pm; the town crier passed news of the attack and the reward given of £500. Panicking government often offered outlandish rewards for information about the ringleaders during this period. It was by this mixture of law, violence, and bribery that the state operated against the anger of the lower orders.

Another weapon of the establishment was the informer, in this case Jack Blackburn, who turned King’s evidence at the trial of William Towle and the others. Blackburn gave evidence against him at the trial. “Bill” Towle was one of the Ned’s band. According to Blackburn, Bill was armed with an axe or hatchet, mostly for the destruction of the machines, but also available to threaten those guarding the machines. When a dog barked on the entrance to the factory, Bill tried to chop it down but is eventually shot by Jem Towle, William’s brother, who had already been executed for his part in the violence in 1816. Bill was there when John Asher was shot, and was deemed complicit in his injury. John Asher took a few months to recover and was never in danger of dying. The real crime was the organised assault on property- if John has been shot in a pub brawl it would have resulted in a two year sentence at a local House of Correction.

William and the other Luddites, Thomas Savage, William Withers, Joshua Mitchell, John Crowder, and John Amos, were executed at the Leicester County Bridewell on April 17th. The initial expectation was that the execution would take place on the Monday previously, but the crowd was still about 15,000, with dragoons clearly in place to deter any crowd reaction.   They were accompanied by a whole bevy of clerics who all wanted the men to be launched into eternity in with the conventional amount of dejection, admissions of guilt and calls for the undeserved mercy of the redeemer. The Luddites did moderately well; they Luddites appeared very cheerful, but were singing   hymns most of the way as they passed along. They mostly accepted the exhortation to look to heaven; but they were not going to admit their guilt. They carried oranges, as many condemned people on the scaffold, and threw them out to people they recognised, telling them to save them for their children.

Towle did not speak; William Savage said the most; all of the men died with dignity, but Towle wavered a little, according to a later report in the Leicester Chronicle.

“Towle, a fresh looking youth, betrayed no symptoms of agitation, until towards the close of the tragic scene, when, on the cap being pulled over his face, he evidently seemed much affected”.

Mr Musson, the executioner, used the New Drop system of hanging- a long rope rather than slow strangulation. All the other Luddites were buried locally; William Towle’s body was returned to his wife and child in Chilwell.

Heathcote and Boden prospered.  John Heathcote moved his whole enterprise to Tiverton, Devon and took 200 of his Leicestershire workers with him. Legend has it that he went on his horse and his workers walked. They were employing 1500 people by 1822 and members of the two families prospered into the twentieth century.  Heathcote died a rich man in 1861.

After the last executions, the establishment newspapers were triumphant and - literally - of one voice.

“The System of   Luddism , which has been so long carried on to the terror of the Nottinghamshire and the neighbourhood ,is expected to be finally checked by the imprisonment  of the principal offenders”

Stamford Mercury, 21st February 1817
Leeds Mercury, 1st March 1817
Lancaster Gazette, 8th March 1817

A compliant press is not a new phenomenon!

James Hobson
Twitter - @about1816
Facebook - The Dark Days of Georgian Britain
Book - The Dark Days of Georgian Britain-Rethinking the Regency - out in October 2017

17th April 1817: The Mayor of Leicester reports the Luddite executions to the Home Office

Leicester 2 oClo Thursday
April 17 1817

Dear Sir

I have the satisfaction to acquaint you that the Execution of the six Luddites here has taken place this morning, in the midst of an immense concourse of People, but without the slightest symptoms of disturbance [illegible] or any expressions of disapprobation of their Punishment amongst the multitude—I attended on horseback for the purpose of observing any manifestation of the public feeling—but nothing met my ear except a Regret that so many fine men in the prime of Life, should by their Crimes have exposed themselves to its forfeiture—

The men appeared resigned tho’ very firm but I understand from one of the magistrates who accompanied the Sheriff on the Scaffold—that had it not been for the very judicious conduct of the Sheriff two of the men had proposed to make very inflammatory addresses to the People; but by his persuasion they were prevented—one of them did say to the People "that they all died for a crime of which they were not Guilty"—& it is remarkable that this Scoundrel (Amos) was the very man whom many Gentlemen thought so well of us to feel anxious for his reprieve—

I confess I have not been troubled with these feelings towards them—& if I had they by their conduct today appeared to me so unconcerned that I should have felt satisfied they did not deserve them—

Savage & Towle were the most impassioned with their situation & all the rest as well as Babington who was executed with them for Arson shewed much more indifference than at all became their situation—So that I trust the destruction of Luddism is affected [although] the loss of any persons much to be lamented—I learn from Mr Mundy that he has the names of a few desperate characters who have been implicated in some of the late outrages: therefore I perfectly agree in the propriety of the delay which your superior judgement has suggested, as to any offer of amnesty—Croft who had been sentenced to suffer for Highway Robbery, but who has since recd from the Judge a respite—communicated some particulars of a very desperate Robbery committed in this County some time back to Mr Mundy & myself yesterday—& tho’ he have not the power of giving any information of the proceeding of the Luddites or Hampdenites [&c]—We hope to lay hold of some desperate characters through heat his means—He is so open & so desirous to make all amends in his power for his part Guilt, that I sincerely hope his Life will be spared—and if you should have reason to think there are Doubts as to this I begged the favor of your information, that Mr Mundy & myself may exert ourselves as far as we can to save him—

I remain [etc]

Jno Mansfield

[To] John Beckett Esqr &c &c

17th April 1817: The Loughborough Job Luddites' hymn - 'How sad our state by nature is!'



How sad our state by nature is!
Our sin, how deep it stains!
And SATAN binds our captive minds
Fast in his slavish chains.

But there’s a voice of Sovereign Grace
Sounds from the sacred word;
Ho! ye despairing sinners come,
And trust upon the Lord.

O may we hear th’ Almighty call,
And run to this relief!
We would believe thy promise Lord;
O help our unbelief!

To the blest fountain of thy blood,
Teach us, O Lord, to fly!
There may we wash our spotted souls
From sins of deepest dye!

Stretch out thine arm, victorious King,
Our reigning sins subdue;
Drive the old dragon from this seat,
And form our souls anew.

Poor, guilty, weak, and helpless worms,
On thy kind arm we fall;
Be thou our strength our righteousness,
Our JESUS and our all!

According to accounts in both the Nottingham Review and Leicester Chronicle , John Amos led his comrades in the singing of the hymn 'How sad our state by nature is!' prior to their execution on Thursday 17th April 1817. The hymn is by the nonconformist Isaac Watts. It is notable that the version sung by the Luddites differs from the most common versions available.

17th April 1817: The final Luddite executions at Leicester - John Amos, John Crowther, Joshua Mitchell, Thomas Savage, William Towle & William Withers are hanged



On Thursday 17th April 1817, the final executions of Luddites took place at Leicester. There was coverage in various local newspapers but, unusually, the coverage in the Nottingham Review was short & muted. Although we have displayed their article below, we have placed the article in the Leicester Chronicle first, as it is much more comprehensive:

The Leicester Chronicle Saturday 19th April 1817:
EXECUTION 
OF 
Thomas Savage, Joshua Mitchell, John Amos, Wm. Towle, John Crowder and Wm. Withers, for entering Messrs. Heathcote and Co’s factory, at Loughborough, and aiding and abetting the shooting at John Asher; Thomas Babington, for setting fire to a stack of oats belonging to Mr. John Moore, of Newbold Verdon. 
About half past five o'clock on Thursday morning, the above unfortunate men were removed from the County Gaol in a covered cart, escorted by a squadron of Hussars, to the New Bridewell, adjoining the Infirmary, where they immediately proceeded to prayer and continued very devoutly engaged the greater part of the morning. About twelve o'clock, they made their appearance on the platform, chained together by the wrist. Savage was placed first; Mitchell, second; Amos, third; Towle, fourth; Crowder, fifth; Withers, sixth; and Babington, seventh. 
After bowing to the vast numbers of persons assembled, Savage shortly addressed them as follows:— 
"My dear Brethren, I am now addressing you as a criminal. I shall not say a great deal. I hope you will take warning by all by our untimely fate, and not regard Man, but God. I feel confident of meeting my saviour hereafter and hope to be forgiven. I did intend to say more, but I have since declined the idea. In behalf of myself and fellow sufferers, I beg to return thanks to Mr. Vaughan & Mr. Hayton, for the attention they have shewn to us.—Farewell!" 
Amos addressed the spectators—"Friends and Fellow-Countrymen—You now see six young men going to suffer for a crime they are not guilty of, (alluding, we presume, to the firing at Asher) for the man who committed the crime will soon be at large. I would have you take warning by our fate, and be careful what company you keep. Farewell!" 
Babington said, "Gentlemen—I am as innocent as God is true, and [looking up,] God will witness it.—Farewell!" 
Mitchell wished to read a paper, but was not permitted. Amos then invited the crowd to join them in singing the following Hymn, which he gave out, two lines at a time, in a most audible and distinct manner, and was joined therein by Savage, Mitchel, Towle, &c. with equally firm voices. 
HYMN. 
How sad our state by nature is!
Our sin, how deep it stains!
And SATAN binds our captive minds
Fast in his slavish chains. 
But there’s a voice of Sovereign Grace
Sounds from the sacred word;
Ho! ye despairing sinners come,
And trust upon the Lord. 
O may we hear th’ Almighty call,
And run to this relief!
We would believe thy promise Lord;
O help our unbelief! 
To the blest fountain of thy blood,
Teach us, O Lord, to fly!
There may we wash our spotted souls
From sins of deepest dye! 
Stretch out thine arm, victorious King,
Our reigning sins subdue;
Drive the old dragon from this seat,
And form our souls anew. 
Poor, guilty, weak, and helpless worms,
On thy kind arm we fall;
Be thou our strength our righteousness,
Our JESUS and our all! 
The last short offices of devotion being concluded, Mr. Musson and the Executioner proceeded to adjust the ropes about the culprits’ necks, during which the prisoners shook hands with each other, and bade a last farewell to several of their friends whom they recognized before them, throwing to each some oranges, with a request that they might be given to their children, &c. 
Having shook hands with the High Sheriff, Clergyman, the Jaoler, &c. one of the unfortunate men (Amos) at about half past twelve, gave a signal by stamping his foot, when the fatal board fell and they were launched into eternity without much struggling, with the exception of Mitchell, who appeared strongly convulsed for several minutes. 
Almost throughout the whole of the awful ceremony they conducted themselves with a degree of firmness seldom witnessed on such a melancholy occasion. Though not insensible to religious impression, they appeared to await their approaching end with a composure we scarcely know how to express. Savage, who was a fine, tall, well-dressed, sensible looking man, appeared to be offering up his prayers with great earnestness when he was tied up. Mitchell, a well-made, bold-looking, well-dressed man, did not appear quite so devout. He assisted in adjusting Savage’s rope, as well as his own, with an unexampled coolness, worthy of a better fate. Amos, a tall, strong, decently dressed man, witnessed his fate with a smile upon his countenance, and seemed to be a man possessing great strength of mind. Towle, a fresh looking youth, betrayed no symptoms of agitation, until towards the close of the tragic scene, when, on the cap being pulled over his face, he evidently seemed much affected. Crowder also seemed much agitated towards the last, as did Withers a little, which he evinced by a restlessness in standing. 
It is to be hoped that the dreadful example now made, here and at Nottingham, will operate in putting an end to a system which has caused so much terror and alarm in this and a neighbouring county, and that Justice will now be satisfied. For ourselves, we are of opinion, with a celebrated writer, that "It is not the intenseness of the pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and more powerfully affected by weak but repeated impressions, than by a violent, but momentary, impulse;" and consider we that "the death of a criminal is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned, as a beast of burthen, to repair, by his labour, the injury done to society. If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of my life. A much more powerful preventative than the fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity." 
A troop of Huzzars were in attendance on the above occasion, and we understand the Yeomanry Cavalry were also in readiness in case any attempt to rescue or disorder should have been made.—happily, however, the whole passed over without any interruption, the unfortunate malefactors having experienced every accommodation which the humanity of the High Sheriff and the Gaoler, was capable of affording under such circumstances. 
The execution being generally understood to take place on Monday, thousands of persons from all parts of this and adjoining counties thronged the town on that day. The postponement of the execution, it seems, was in consequence of the County Sessions commencing the early part of the week. It is computed not less than 15,000 persons were present on Thursday.
The Nottingham Review of Friday 18th April 1817:
LEICESTER, April 17, 1817.—"This morning about six o'clock, the six Luddites under sentence of condemnation, viz. Thomas Savage, William Withers, Joshua Mitchell, William Towle, John Crowder, and John Amos, together with Thomas Beavington, (for Arson) were removed, under an escort of dragoons, from the County Gaol, to the County Bridewell, preparatory to their being executed on the new drop. The Luddites appeared very cheerful, singing hymns most of the way as they passed along. Beavington seemed very dejected. In the course of the morning a greater concourse of people assembled than was ever known in this town, supposed at least, twenty thousand, to witness the melancholy spectacle. At about half past eleven o’clock, they all came on the platform, accompanied by Rev. Mr. Highton, Chaplain to the Gaol, Rev. Mr. Mitchell, Rev. Mr. Vaughan, &c. After attending the exhortations and prayers on the occasion, which they did with becoming behaviour, Savidge thanked the Ministers, &c. for their kindness and attention, on behalf of himself and fellow sufferers, and particularly for pointing out to them the way to heaven; he said he had intended to have addressed the multitude, but the time being too far gone, he should say very little; he declared their innocence as to the shooting at Asher. Amos said a few words and declared the same—Mitchell also said a few words.—Beavington declared his innocence, calling God to witness, and with his eyes lifted to heaven, said he did not set fire to the stacks. After these declarations, Amos with a firm voice, said he would now give out a hymn, desiring the people to join in singing the same, which was very readily complied with by many. The hymn was Dr. Watts, 90th hymn, 2d book, which begins, 
"How sad our state by nature is,
Our sin how deep it stains;
And Satan binds our captive minds,
Fast in his slavish chains." 
"They all joined and sang the hymn, apparently without faltering; after which at about a quarter past twelve o'clock, the signal being given, the platform fell, and they were launched into eternity;—during the time they were on the platform, they recognised several of their friends, and threw oranges to them, desiring to be remembered to their friends in Nottingham. 
“Every thing was very peaceable—the dragoons attended the platform."
Finally, the Leicester Journal of Friday 18th April 1817:
Expectation was on tiptoe, and curiosity afloat throughout the County and its vicinity, on Monday last, from his supposition that seven of the Malefactors (convicted at the last Assizes) would be executed on that day, an immense influx of people poured in from all quarters, in consequence, during the morning, (many of them from a considerable distance.)—but came to be disappointed. The Sessions for the County taking place in the early part of the week, their execution was postponed until yesterday. At six o'clock in the morning, Thomas Savage, William Withers, William Towle, John Amos, John Crowther, and Joshua Mitchell, LUDDITES, together with Thomas Beavington, for wilfully setting fire to a stack of oats, were removed from the County Gaol, under a military escort, to the New Bridewell, near the Infirmary.—The High Sheriff attended at seven o'clock, to see that the Prisoners had every accommodation consistent with their situation.—The LUDDITES were deeply impressed with the approach of the awful moment, and were very attentive to their devotion, in which they were assisted by the Chaplain, Mr. Hayton, together with the Rev. Mr. Vaughan and Mitchell. Savage acknowledged the justice of his sentence; and expressed himself grateful for the religious instruction he had received from the Rev. Messrs. Hayton, Vaughan, and Mitchell. At half past eleven they appeared upon the scaffold—after bowing to the populace—Savage addressed the multitude, cautioning them against inattention to religion, and neglect of the Sabbath, to which he attributed his own [illegible]. Mitchell was desirous of reading a paper, which was not permitted. Amos told the people, that he and his companions suffered for a crime which they never committed, (alluding to the firing at Asher,) but they all acknowledged to have been at Loughborough, and engaged in the business as proved on the trial. They all then sung an hymn, and were shortly after launched into eternity.—Their deportment to the last, although apparently repentant, savored strongly of hardy indifference.—The immense number present (at least ten thousand) behaved with great decorum, and dispersed perfectly quiet; too much praise cannot be given to the Civil Power, for the judicious arrangements adopted.

17th April 1817: Charles Mundy sends Thomas Savage's statement to Lord Sidmouth

Burton April 17th. 1817.
near Loughborough

My Lord

I have the Honour to enclose for your Lordships information the statement made to me by Thomas Savage who is this morning to be executed at Leicester I saw this unhappy man yesterday when he inform’d me he had nothing to add to what he had before stated to me. William Towle persists in stating that a man of the name of Lee now under sentence of transportation from the last assizes at Nottingham is innocent of the crime of which he has been convicted. namely a most outrageous robbery in a Booth on a Cricket ground near Nottingham William Towle declares he was there himself but that Lee who had been drinking with the party before they set out to commit the crime & who was with them next morning when they were spending part of the Booty was not at the Robbery and that he was not privy to it in any way either before or after.—I mentioned this circumstance to Mr. Baron Richards at Warwick who had not then time to refer to his notes of the trial.  but said as far as he could recollect that the evidence was very clear.—not knowing how to direct to Mr. Baron Richards I take this opportunity of mentioning that from every enquiry into the former conduct of James Crofts whom Mr. Baron Richards has respited from death having been convicted of a Highway robbery it appears that though Crofts has without doubt been concernd in robberies yet that he has never been guilty of violence & there is instance on record in the Police Book at Nottingham of his having dissuaded his associates from carrying pistols.—This man seems inclin’d to give some information that may prove important respecting a Burglary accompanied with great violence that took place at a farm House near Loughborough last summer. He was concernd in it but has heard those that were talk of it—I beg to know your Lordships intentions wether the whole of the prejudiced witnesses who appeared at the Leicestershire assizes last August on behalf of James Towle and Slater should be prosecuted or only those of the most notorious character. The expence of this prosecution I presume is to be carried on by the County but I shall hope for your Lordships Commands on this Head & also whether as it is a prosecution growing out of the former ones the same attorney should be concerned

I have [etc]

C. G. Mundy

[To: Lord Sidmouth]

17th April 1817: Awaiting his execution, the Luddite, John Crowther, writes to his wife

New Bridewell, Leicester, 8 o'clock, on the morning of our execution.

O my dearest and best of Wives,

When you receive this, I shall be no more in this world. But I die happy, in the hope of a blessed Saviour. O what a comfortable thing it is to serve the Lord. I still think my sentence very cruel and unjust, I may say murderous, for Blackborne owned upon the trial he was the man that shot Asher, for which we suffer for aiding and abetting. I was never in the factory at all; I was an outside sentinel, forty or fifty yards from the factory at the time Asher was shot, therefore I could not be assisting in the shooting of Asher, for I did not know he was shot until we had got several miles from Loughborough, on our return home. Blackborne and Burton swore that all the outside sentinels had pistols, which was false, for I had none until it was nearly over, and that which I had then was not loaded, for I threw stones at first.

My dearest wife, I most earnestly wish I had taken your advice, I should not have come to this end. I feel quite calm and in good spirits. O trust in the Lord, for he can strengthen us in the time of trouble: O trust in a blessed Saviour, for he will give us rest. I could wish for John Rawson, John Roberts, and John Roper, to be my bearers; dear wife, choose the other three thyself.

Pray remember my love to my mother and relations; remember my respects to my neighbours, shopmates, and all inquiring friends. For ever adieu! Adieu! I hope, dear wife, to meet you and my dear children and mother in heaven.

JOHN CROWDER.

Sunday, 16 April 2017

16th April 1817: "The Last Gift of John Amos, to his Dear Children"

The Luddite John Amos, awaiting sentence of death the following day at Leicester, allegedly wrote this poem to his children into the Bible he had received from the Reverend Mitchell of Leicester, prior to his execution:
THE LAST GIFT OF JOHN AMOS,
TO HIS DEAR CHILDREN.
Oh! my dear children, when this you see,
Pray serve your God, and think on me!
I'm torn from you, to an untimely end,
But on the Lord I do depend!
To serve him truly is my delight,
And to find mercy, in his sight.
I hope, dear children, you will do the same, 
And when you read this, think of his name,
And serve him truly in his sight,
He is our Saviour and delight;
I hope in heaven to meet you there,
Then death’s alarms we need not fear.
Farewel, vain world, I have done with you;
I have a better world in view!
To meet my Saviour, Christ our Lord,
Who better joys can me afford!

16th April 1817: The GPO Surveyor, Gratian Hart, forwards the letter from John Blackburn to William Burton, to his superior

Nottingham 16 April 1817

Dear Sir

Among the letters from Leicester this Afternoon, was one, directed Mr. William Burton, Lambley, near Nottingham; the man's name, & the Village, are both of notoriety, & accordingly I have copied the Contents: I have no one at this moment to communicate with, Mr. Alsop being absent, nor is there in this Case an immediate necessity.

Blackburn was admitted Evidence—one expression in his letter requires explanation, before he regains his liberty: "My Master is settled with me for the Frames"—now it strikes me, Mr. Blackburn has received his remuneration for his work of Iniquity, breaking the Frames from his Master, who is the person just now exactly wanted.—If it strikes you in the same point of view, you will of course acquaint the Secretary of State.—

I am [etc]
(signed) Gratian Hart

[To] F. Freeling Esq
&c &c &c

16th April 1817: Charles Mundy informs the Home Secretary of the preparations for the executions the following day

Leicester April 16 1817

My Lord

I have the Honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordships letter of the fourteenth & to say that although I did myself the Honour of calling at your Lordships Office on Tuesday last I thought the day of the week might probably have caught your Lordships recollection. I shall have the Honour by tomorrows post to transmit to your Lordship the statement of Savage of the substance of which I made your Lordship acquainted on Saturday last. I perfectly coincide in your Lordships opinion that painful as it is a striking example must, for the public good, be made of the unfortunate men now under sentence of death here. but I thought it my duty to make your Lordship acquainted with every circumstance respecting them that came to my knowledge, which occasioned my letter respecting Amos.—I arrived here last night Nottingham & am informed by the High Sheriff that the execution will certainly take place tomorrow.—a vast crowd was assembled here on monday in expectation of the execution being about to take place. they even climbed on the Tops of the Houses near to the Gaol & on the walls of part of the prison itself, & calld to the condemned men. Two Troops of the 15th Lt. Dragns who are quartered here are to attend the execution and & transmit the unhappy men from the old Gaol to the new House of Correction where the drop is erected—& two Troops of the yeomanry Cavalry are to be in the environs of that part of the Town.—

Mr. Allsopp communicated to me at Nottingham the contents of a letter he had receivd from your Lordship. it seems to me to be advisable that in making selections for any future prosecutions attention should be paid to how far deeply the persons implicated may be supposed to be connected either in the Ludding or Political conspiracies.—I have communicated my ideas on the subject to Mr. Rolleston & also, on the former subject, to Mr. Enfield whom I know Mr. Rolleston will confer with.—

I had the pleasure of an interview yesterday at Nottingham with Mr. Hooley & Mr. Smith and am particularly glad to be in communication with two Gentlemen who seem to be so well dispos’d. I find Mr. Hooley purposes writing on your Lordship shortly I have the Honour to remain My Lord

your Lordships most Obedient very Humble Servant

C.G. Mundy

[To] The Right Honourable The Secretary of State
for the Home Department.

Friday, 14 April 2017

14th April 1817: Louis Allsopp updates the Home Office on the mood in Nottinghamshire

Nottingham
14 April 1817.

My Lord.

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordships letters this Afternoon.—

Your Lordship will have received a Copy of the Letter I procured respecting Henson's reception by Mr Smith, which I obtained from the man to whom it is it was addressed

Mr Mundy returned by the Mail, I expected he would have slept at my house, but he went on with Mr Rollestone, & as I must go into Warwickshire in the morning for a few days I shall not be able to see him to my return, but I will forward your Lordships letter to him tomorrow—

Henson's Apprehension has caused great alarm; no Information has been obtained thereon at the Post Office at present; Mr Hart, the Surveyor, informed me that the Letters coming into the Office here shew that there is great Consternation, at the intended Execution—

Lord Middleton made a foolish Speech at Mansfield on Wednesday at the Meeting to address The Regent, reflecting on the Conduct of the Hosiers to their Men; stating it as coming from Savage; this is given umbridge to the Hosiers, & they are to have a private meeting tomorrow; I hope the matter will drop, the business will do harm, & these sort of observations lead to encourage the Luddites—

I shall hope to see Mr Mundy very shortly after my return the latter end of the Week

I have [etc]

L Allsopp

Mr Hooley will be in London on Saturday, if your Lordship wishes to see him, will do himself the Honor of waiting upon you any day after 3 oClock he is detained at the India House in the Morning—

[To] The Right Honorable Lrd Visct. Sidmouth—

Thursday, 13 April 2017

13th April 1817: The GPO Surveyor, Gratian Hart, reports that news of Gravenor Henson's arrest has not brought any reaction

Nottingham
April 13. 1817

Dear Sir

Mr Allsop had prepared me for the arrest of Grosvenor Henson in Town, when, we expected, the intelligence of this event, would be communicated by the first Posts, to Manchester and other Places: I have attended the Office at Night, and perceive nothing like any political or rather, Seditious communication: I shall continue on the Alert.

I am [etc]

Gratian Hart

[To] Francis Freeling Esqr.
&c &c &c

Wednesday, 12 April 2017

12th April 1817: Louis Allsopp updates the Home Secretary on the plot against Gravenor Henson

Nottingham
12 [April] 1817.

My Lord.

I sent to your Lordship herewith a Copy of a Letter I made from one written by Henson, & which I have obtained from a person, who has not the least Idea of what is doing; by this letter I conclude your Lordship will have had the Honor of a Visit from him—

I hear Lord Middleton is anxious to get Savage off, he is one of the worst—Mitchells Friends are very respectable & loyal—& I know some of them, but with my feelings on the necessity of an Example being made, I would not venture to express a Wish to your Lordship, I [should] feel that I was forfeiting any good opinion your Lordship might please to entertain of me—& I know it [would] be useless after the firm way in which your Lordship condescended to speak to me on this business.

I am favored with Mr Beckett's letter & very happy to hear that the business is done—I immediately put the messenger in the Way of taking possession of Henson's papers, & he is now at the house; I am under the necessity of going a few miles into the Country to see an elderly Gentleman on business, but I shall return in the Morning—

Mr Hart, the Surveyor, is engaged at the post office by some of Mrs. Raynors Friends, upon which subject we must trouble your Lordship hereafter, for it will never do to have the post office of such a place as this in the hands of our Enemies.

I have [etc]

L Allsopp

Mr Hart is fully
alive to your
Lordships
commands respecting
the Letters.

[To] The Lord Visct Sidmouth

Tuesday, 11 April 2017

11th April 1817: A Nottingham Hosier, Thomas Hayne, confirms the arrested Gravenor Henson's companion is ready to talk to the Home Secretary

No 8 Wood St 11th Apl 1817
8 oClock

My Lord

The Person who came from Nottingham with G Henson (who was this Morning taken into Custody by Mr Day on your Lordships Warrant) is William Robinson he called this Evening upon me—and states that he is ready to attend your Lordship if required.—and will be at my House tomorrow at One oClock

I therefore communicate this to your Lordship and wait any further instructions that you may think proper to give

I have [etc]
Thomas Hayne

To the Rt Honble
Lord Sidmouth
&c &c &c

11th April 1817: The Luddite-turned-informer, John Blackburn, writes to his fellow Luddite-turned-informer, William Burton

April 11

Dear frends.

I have the liberty of wrighting to you oping this will find you well in health. wich it leave us at this present time thank God for it Nancy is very well & the child & she desires to be remembered to you all you Must exused me getting into sutch a scrape as this for I had no more thoughts than flying In the hair last year but I thought It would do me good But thank God I have got over it—as I have my Master is settled with me for the frames but where we shall goto after whe get out of here I cant tell they tell I am quite at liberty so where I shall go to I can't tell

I have no more at present

John C. Blackburn

[To: William Burton, Lambley]

Monday, 10 April 2017

10th April 1817: The Luddite, John Amos, writes to his wife, from the condemned cell at Leicester Gaol

Leicester County Gaol

Dear Wife,

I write these few lines to you, hoping they will find you in good health, as they leave me in good health, considering the awful situation I am placed it, bless the Lord for it.—Oh what disgrace I have brought upon my family. O my dear wife, pardon me for the distress which I brought you and my dear children. O pray forgive me; I know I robbed a virtuous wife of every comfort in this world. My dear wife and children, and my dear father and mother, is all that is dear in this world. I know not how to find words to express myself; but my dear wife, I know your heart, I know you'll forgive me when you read these few lines from a dying husband, who speaks the sentiments of his heart; you know it was nothing but distress that induced me to go to Loughborough; O, I now entreat, but alas! it is too late; but I have one consolation impressed on my mind, that with true repentance, through the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ, I shall enter into eternal life. Most of my time is spent in prayer to God, to forgive my sins: I am sensible of my awful situation, without true repentance I cannot be saved. There are nine of us who are likely to forfeit our lives to the offended laws of our country. My dear wife, my fate is very hard, for I am going to die for a crime which I never committed. I shall make only one observation on the man that swore against me: Burton swore that I was with him at the Peach Tree, in Nottingham, on the morning the frames were broken at night; I do solemnly declare, as a dying man, that I never was in the public house with that man in all my life, nor do I remember that I ever saw him in all my life until I saw him at Squire Mundys. O my poor dear father and mother, and my dear sister, I hope the Lord will protect you; and I hope, dear friends, you will always look upon my dear wife and five poor dear children, for if I had taken the advice of my wife, I should not have been placed in this awful situation; but I assure you, I am preparing my soul to meet my God on that fatal day which I am doomed to die. My dear wife, don't give way to fretting, for the sake of my dear children: I need not say any more to you on the subject, for I know your good heart, you will bring them up in the right way. Let me assure you my mind is at rest. Dear wife, let these few lines comfort you. I expect in a few days to meet the fate which the laws of my country will inflict upon me. Give my love to my father and mother, and my dear sister, and all my relations and friends; I hope we shall all meet in heaven. Farewel my friends! farewel! adieu!

I remain,
Your affectionate unfortunate husband,
JOHN AMOS.

N.B. I should wish my body to be interred in Nottingham, if my friends can fetch me.

From the Condemned Cell,
April 10, 1817.
This is my confession.

10th April 1817: Gravenor Henson writes of his meeting with John Smith MP

London Apl 10th 1817.

Sir

Me & Mr Atkinson waited on Mr John Smith pursuant to appointment, and had the mortification to learn that he had seen my Lord Sidmouth, & that his Lordship had told Mr Smith that to the Communications he had to make "he had no Answer to give" in fact Ld. S has not deigned to give any Answer to the Communication which Mr Smith has thought proper prudent to disclose, Mr Smith's manner was particularly reserved, and latterly [repelling], though polite; in the Conversation that I had with him at his Seat at Blendon Hall, he declined presenting the Petition to the Regent, as an useless & unavailing measure. Notwithstanding this, Mr Robinson is determined to carry the Petition along with me to the Home Department Office & present his letter of Recommendation to Ld. S from Lord Rancliff to obtain an Interview which will be done tomorrow.

I am Dear Sir

Yours
G. Henson

To Mr Woodhouse
Lion & Unicorn
Newcastle Street
Nottingham

Sunday, 9 April 2017

9th April 1817: Lord Middleton urges Nottinghamshire Hosiers to 'conciliate their workmen', quoting the Luddite Thomas Savage

COUNTY MEETING, AT MANSFIELD.

A Correspondent has transmitted us some particulars of the Meeting held at Mansfield, which we are requested to publish.

A County Meeting was held at the Moot Hall, Mansfield, on Wednesday the 9th Instant, in pursuance of a Requisition to the High Sheriff, "to consider of a proper congratulatory Address, to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, upon his escape from the late violent and treasonable outrage, against his Royal Person," when—

LORD MIDDLETON, after apologizing for offering himself to the notice of the Meeting, observed, that at the last Assizes, a friend of his, then present, suggested the propriety of having a County Meeting, for the purpose of addressing the Prince Regent, upon his escape from the outrageous attack that had been made upon his person; he should always thank that friend, (he meant Mr. Sutton) for the suggestion: it had been said that it was now too late to address the Regent, but in his opinion, an Address, even now, would be preferable to no Address;—(Applause)—besides, he thought that the detection of the conspiracy at Manchester, and which appeared to extend to other places; and the disturbed state this County had long been in, rendered an Address highly proper. It was the duty of every man to rally round that admirable Constitution, which had stood the test of ages, and which afforded protection to the meanest peasant. "We should," said his Lordship, "congratulate the meanest individual in the streets, upon his escape from assassination; how thankful then ought we to feel, for the providential escape of the person, exercising the highest office in the State. I tremble at the very idea of the consequences, had the attack succeeded;" and he thought no man who had any veneration for the Constitution, could object to an Address of Congratulation to the Prince, upon his escape; he had always admired the British Constitution—in that admiration he should continue to his last moments, and he was ready to die in its defence. His Lordship concluded his Speech with moving the Address.

J.M SUTTON, Esq. (of Langwith) said, that he was unaccustomed to public speaking, and he therefore, hoped, the assembly would favor him with their indulgence for a few moments—he stated that evil person had taken advantage of the times to poison the minds of the people, and to make them believe their sufferings were unheeded—he conceived it to be the duty of every man, to use his utmost efforts, to re-call the unwary to a sense of what they owed their King in their country. Mr. Sutton concluded abruptly, by stating that he felt unable to proceed.

R. HOLDEN, Esq. stated that he had heard it remarked, it was now too late to address the Regent, he should only repeat the old proverb, "better late than never." Gentlemen, said Mr. Holden, we ought to shrw that we cannot and will not bear that the Constitution shall be attacked by any body or set of men; the County of Nottingham, Sir, is I am sure as loyal as any County in the kingdom, and I think we should not discharge the duty we owe to our King, to our Country, and to posterity, were we not to congratulate his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, upon his escape from the daring and atrocious attack upon his person; when almost every town in the kingdom has addressed the Regent, shall it be said, that this was the only County which had not congratulated the Prince. Sir, the County of Nottingham does not deserve such censure, I therefore rejoice in the present Meeting, and beg leave to second the address.

L. ROLLESTON, Esq (of Watnall,) after some very pertinent remarks, observed, that it might appear strange, that what six weeks ago was thought to be improper, should now be thought proper; in his opinion circumstances now imperiously called for an address; however in some particulars men might differ in their political principles, yet all must agree as to the propriety of congratulating the Prince Regent, on his escape from the attack upon his person; he thought the County would be disgraced unless it addressed the Regent—"when faction rears its head, shall the County of Nottingham stand alone; I trust that it never shall be said we did not exert ourselves against the designs of factious demagogues"—he therefore heartily concurred in the address.

Several other gentlemen address the Meeting, and ADMIRAL FRANK (one of the County Members) declared that the County of Nottingham was as loyal as any county in the kingdom—he always had vindicated its loyalty, and he always would; it had been declared in the Secret Committee, that this county was not infected with treason.

The following resolutions were passed unanimously, viz.:—That the Address should be presented by the Members for the County—That the thanks of the Meeting should be given to the mover and seconder of the Address—That the proceedings of the meeting should be published in the Nottingham Journal, the Morning Chronicle, the Courier newspapers. And the High Sheriff having quitted the chair, (which was taken by the Duke of Newcastle,) a vote of thanks was given to the High Sheriff for his ready compliance with the requisition, and for his conduct in the chair.

After the business of the Meeting was over, LORD MIDDLETON spoke at some length of the practices that had so long with the disgrace of this county, and after alluding to his own conduct at the late Assizes, (when he withdrew the prosecutions against Mellors and two others, for shooting at his Lordship's Gamekeeper,) said, that at the time he was afraid his conduct would be imputed to a wrong motive—that of fear; his Lordship denied that fear operated upon him. That if any future disturbances arose in this county, no motive should prevent him from using his utmost endeavours to bring the authors to justice. That he had not spared any pains to learn the real cause of the apparently determined hostility that existed between the employer and the workmen—he had dived into gaols for this purpose. "You may," said his Lordship, "think I possess a hard heart, but I assure you I do not." He said he had been to Leicester, and there he had had an interview with one of the unfortunate men who were about to expiate their crimes by an ignominious death. Yes, he had there seen one of the unfortunate engines, in the hands of other men, and he believed he had ascertained the cause of the unnatural rancour that had so long existed. He had asked this unfortunate man if it was not possible for something to be done to put an end to the system which had so long existed in this county; he would name this unhappy man, it was Savage, and this was the reply he made:—"My Lord," said he, "if the employer would fix a price upon the work, so that the workman might know what he had to receive, Ludding would have ceased long ago; but the workman never knew what price he was to have. My Lord," continued this unfortunate man, "I am prepared to die—I do not grieve for myself, but I grieve for my wife, who is now pregnant, and for my six children; it is for them, my Lord, that I grieve, and not for myself, for I fear not death." If, continued his Lordship, there are any manufacturer present, I would recommend them to endeavour to conciliate their workmen, and to try to allay that malignant spirit which has for so long a period disturbed this county. His Lordship concluded his speech, which appeared to excite considerable interest in the minds of the hearers, by a few other observations relative to the baneful practices that have so long existed in the county, but which, he thought, had now received a death blow.

9th April 1817: The Nottingham MP, John Smith, informs the Home Secretary of a meeting with Gravenor Henson

Blendon Hall near Dartford
April 9 1817.—

An application has been made to me by a large number of my Constituents to present a Petition to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent through the hands of your Lordship to extend Mercy to the Luddites convicted at Leicester. I have refused to be the Organ of any such application but the individual who has brought up the Petition to London, & who is supposed to be one of the Leaders in the Luddite Conspiracy has stated some circumstances to me for your Lordship’s information to which though I can readily anticipate your Lordships answer I think I may incur a responsibility by keeping from your knowledge, & that of his Majesties Government. This must be my apology for soliciting an audience of your Lordship for a very few minutes tomorrow morning, & for also requesting in case you should be pleased to grant it to make known the hour that your Lordship will receive me by a hope addressed to me at my House in New Street Spring Gardens.—

I have the honor to be
My Lord
Your most obed Servt

John Smith.

Saturday, 8 April 2017

8th April 1817: The statement of the Luddite, Thomas Savage

Thomas Savages account taken by Mr. Mundy
April 8th 1817

The Week Savage was taken up early in Febry last a meeting took place at the House of Major Cartwright in London a missionary went from Nottingham with one Bembow a missionary from Manchester to Major Cartwrights.—Bembow did not go to the Majors he went to a Committee somewhere in London.—Major Cartwright wrote to one of the Nottingham committee to say Sir F. Burdett and Cobbett had met the man at his House and desiring the missionary might stay longer.—The Nottingham missionary engaged one *Bonnington whom he met in London, portrait painter, to attend the chamber of Deputies in London. The object of the Nottingham missionary was to ascertain the opinion of Major Cartwright Sir F. Burdett and Cobbett as to a revolution this missionaries name is Robert Wain of New Radford he is a framework knitter.—Savage being taken up at that time knows nothing of what pass’d at Major Cartwright’s House.—A missionary from Arnold took a letter from Mr. Dennison to Major Cartwright. This Deputies name is Gibbons of Arnold this was at the same time.—The chief members of this Committee are as follows.

**Thomas Burton of Sandy Lane Nottingham framework knitter.—Greaves of Turn crofts alley Nottingham framework knitter.—Simpson of Gregories Buildings framework knitter—Rhodes near the Horse & Trumpet Shoe Maker (his Wife lives at Ilkeston in Derbyshire) this man & Burton are dangerous characters.—Holmes of Fishergate Nottingham framework knitter. All these live in Nottingham Grosvenor Henson is the Head man of the whole One Adam Macree a Scotchman and Anderson another Scotchman both living in Meadow Platts Nottingham framework knitters are the bosom friends of Gravenor Henson.—There are two Leicester men living at Nottingham by name Witts and Palmer leading men.—Schoults or Schults a native of London is a very good orator.—Southern of Fishergate Framework knitter is one of the Hambden Club men & a very active man.—The Committee sat at the Cross keys in Mary Gate Nottingham.—The secretary is one Smith. Savage does not know him well. —

The secretary is one Smith Savage does not know him well nor where he lives.—The Object of Bembows mission was to prepare things for a revolution. he stated he had been round the country & that he could answer for a Hundred thousand in the Potteries of Staffordshire. Savage had this from Bembow, he stated that the Committee at Manchester were men that had be tried for a Conspiracy about 2 years since—Savage says Thomas Burton knows every thing.—Savage heard Gravenor Henson say about a year and a half since that the depot at Derby might be taken & that he along with Witts had laid the plan, & that one Hill (not the Ludd) went to Ilkeston in Derbyshire to tell them to prepare but Hill getting drunk & talking of it, it was delayed & the arms were removed from the depot in the night. Henson also spoke of attacking the Barracks at Nottingham & said three hundred men would be sufficient.—Witts was to go to Leicester to some Gentleman there for money. Savage never heard his name.—Witts was to go over to Leicester & get some of the men belonging to a militia stationed there to join their party.—Henson went to Sheffield two years since to form Committees.—

Savage thinks as soon as Henson heard of the suspension of Habeas Corpus act. he would cause all the correspondence & other documents to be destroyd.—

Frank White is a workman at Laceys factory at Loughbro’ first proposed to Savage the destruction of Heathcotes machinery.—Neale gave him £20 at the Green man Christopher Blackburn was present. Savage also saw Jewks in the business.—White drew a plan of Heathcotes factory. Savage thinks it was delivered to Christopher Blackburn to convey to Frank Ward. Benjamin Badder had the core of it who burnd it up as soon as James Towle was taken up.—Savage does not know of any collusion on the part of any of Heathcote’s men but has understood that ***Ironman gave himself up very easily. Savage never went beyond the Gate where the dog was.—Savage says Ludding & Politicks are closely connected.

*Bonnington is son or nephew to the late Gaoler for the County of Nottingham
**Savage thinks this man might be dealt with—& this man said Disney word to get away from Sheepshead when he heard of the apprehension of the Ludds at Nottingham.—
***The regular Watchman at the factory

8th April 1817: The Luddite, Thomas Savage, writes to his wife & children from the condemned cell at Leicester Gaol

Leicester County Prison

My dear Wife and children,

I beg and pray of you, when you peruse these few lines, that they will be some consolation to you, though I know not how to find words to express myself to you. Let me intreat you not to lay my unfortunate end too close your heart, though I am sensible of your true affection for me; but let me press this on your mind, consider that there are six dear children, besides being pregnant again!! O let me intreat you again, my dear wife, don't give way to fretting, for the sake of my dear children. I need not say any thing more to you, consider that I know your good heart; I need not tell you that duty you have to perform; you know the duty of a wife and a mother, that you will bring them up in a right way; this I do assure you, my heart is at rest about that. Dear wife, let these few words comfort your heart. O what disgrace I have brought upon my family. Pardon, pardon me for that distress I have brought on you; I know I have robbed a virtuous wife of every comfort in this world, but I know you will forgive me. I have one consolation impressed on my mind, that with true repentance, through the merits of our blessed Saviour, I shall enter to eternal life, where I hope to meet you and my dear children. My dear wife, my fate is hard; but I assure you I am preparing my soul to meet that God I have so offended. Dear wife, I feel much composed to meet my fate. Give my love to your father and mother, your brothers and sisters, my love to all my friends and relations. I have wrote a letter to my dear father, which I hope he will let you see. My desire is to be fetched home to my father's house, unless you would desire I should be taken to you; but you have seen my friend before you receive my letter. My desire is to be laid where you and my dear children shall lie together; this is the desire of your loving and affectionate, but dying husband. I shall now conclude;---may God give you strength, and support you through all your trouble. I pray to God to give you health so as to enable you to see my dear children brought up. Farewel! Farewel! my dear wife and children, farewel! Adieu!

I remain your affectionate but unfortunate husband,

THOMAS SAVIDGE.

Condemned Cell, Tuesday, April 8th, about three o'clock in the afternoon.

8th April 1817: The Hosier, James Hooley, informs the Home Secretary that he will swear that Gravenor Henson is engaged in Treason

Nottingham 8th Apr: 1817

My Lord

By this days post I received a letter from Mr. Allsop informing me that it is your Lordships wish to have my affidavit that I believe G Henson to be engaged in treasonable practices against his Majesty.—As I conceive it to be the duty of every honest man to aid your Lordships views for the protection of the State I have no hesitation in complying with your Lordships request. But I do not possess sufficient knowledge to make a similar affidavit respecting the character of F Ward, M Adkin & J Lowater.—I am informed—and I believe correctly—that Henson is gone to London this morning by the mail—The ostensible reason given is that he is to endeavour to save the lives of the Ludd's now under condemnation at Leicester—but, in my opinion, more likely to meet some of the deputies on treasonable practices—I regret that I cannot give your Lordship that information, but if I can learn any thing satisfactory I shall hasten to communicating

I have [etc]
James Hooley

PS

It may be proper to give your Lordship a short description of Henson's person—He appears to be about 35 years of age—about 5 feet 4 or 5 feet 5 inches high—well made—fresh complexion—dark hair—is a sensible fellow—and very fond of talking—Mr Enfield writes your Lordship by this post.

8th April 1817: The Luddite, William Withers, writes to his wife, from the condemned cell at Leicester

Leicester County Gaol

My Dear Wife,

These are the last few lines you will ever receive from your loving and affectionate, but dying husband: pardon me for the distress I have brought upon you, my dear child. O how I reflect upon myself, to think I had no better conduct. Oh! pardon me for the distress I have brought upon you, but I know your good heart; you will forgive me. My dear, let me intreat you not to fret after me. I hope, when it shall please the Lord to call you from hence, we shall meet together in heaven, to part no more. Most of my time is spent in prayer, and I hope, with true repentance, through the merits of our blessed Saviour, to enter into eternal life in Jesus Christ. I cannot die without making one remark to you, it was nothing but distress that ever induced me to be at Loughborough; I now repent, but, alas! it is too late. I received your letter and my mother’s at one time. I forgive my enemies, though you are truly sensible that Blackborne has been the ruin of me; I bear him no malice, I have freely forgiven him.---There are Clergyman attend us, and are very kind to us; they take great pains to prepare our souls for that awful moment when I must forfeit my life to the laws of my country. My dear wife, my fate is very hard, for I am going to die for a crime I never committed, nor intended. O my poor dear mother, and my brothers and sisters, I know the Lord will protect you for ever. My dear friends will look at my dearest wife and sweetest child, for if I had taken the advice of my dear wife, I should not have been in this awful situation; but I assure you I am preparing my sould to meet my God on that fatal day in which I am doomed to die.—Dear wife, I have one remark to make; John Blackborne swore several things against me that I never did; and I solemnly declare, as a dying man, that I never was in the factory, till all the frames were destroyed. Dear wife, I should like to see as many of my friends as can make it convenient to come. Give my love and duty to my poor, dear mother; and I hope I shall meet her, and all my friends and relations in heaven. I hope my tender mother will excuse me answering her letter, as the principal part of my time is employed in preparing, by prayer, to meet the Lord my God. Farewel, my friends! Farewel! Adieu!—I remain your loving affectionate, but unfortunate husband,

WILLIAM WITHERS.

Condemned Cell, April 8th, 1817,
11 o'clock in the morning.
This is my Confession.

8th April 1817: The Luddite, Joshua Mitchell, writes to his brother, from the condemned cell at Leicester Gaol

Leicester County Gaol

My dear Brother,

I received your kind and welcome letter. I am sensible of my awful situation: had I took your advice, and followed your good example, this would not have been my fate. I have just seen Mr. Burton, and he says the Rev. Mr. Hall is out of town; there are three clergyman attend us every day, preparing our souls for that awful sentence which the laws of our country has inflicted upon us. Dear brother, give my humble and hearty thanks to Mr. Alderman Barber and the Rev. Mr. Jarman, for their kind offer. Dear brother, I have one consolation imprest upon my mind, with true repentance, through the merits of our blessed Saviour Jesus Christ, I shall enter eternal life. Dear brother, I hope you will remain a comforter to my dear mother, and God will reward you. Dear brother, I should like to see you, my dear sisters Elizabeth and Melicent, and John Spears, and any of my relations that has a great desire to see me. Dear brother, I expect I shall leave this vain world next Monday, in hopes of finding eternal life through the merits of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Dear brother, I hope you will forgive me my trespasses against you, and still remain praying for your unworthy brother,

JOSHUA MITCHELL.

N..B. I have heard that my dear mother wishes to see me; I think it would be more than she could bear. Dear brother, I would have you tell her, there is my two dear young brothers to bring up, and she must think of them; but I shall leave it to you, dear brother, there is one consolation that we shall meet again in heaven, with true repentance, through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Condemned Cell, Tuesday,
April 8th, 1817.

Friday, 7 April 2017

7th April 1817: Thomas Savage writes to his father, from the condemned cell at Leicester Gaol

Leicester County Gaol,
April 7, 1817.

Dear honoured Father,

I have just had my son with me, who has informed me of a circumstance which has hurt my mind, to think that I should be thought guilty of such a crime. Mitchell I may call a stranger to me, as I did not know him at the time Mr. Trentham was shot; and I declare, as a dying man, thaut I do not know who shot him, nor ever did. I am as innocent of the crime as a child unborn; and this I solemnly declare, that I never embrued my hands in the blood of my fellow-creature, nor ever thought of committing such an act. I never was a procurator to the Luddites in my life, and if I am so judged, I am judged wrongfully. The men who were along with me, I had no acquaintance with at all. I acknowledge being at Loughborough, and had the truth been spoken, it would not have appeared so bad against me.

I remain your affectionate son,

THOMAS SAVIDGE.

Condemned Cell.

Thursday, 6 April 2017

6th April 1817: William Towle writes to his father, from the condemned cell at Leicester Gaol

TO W. TOWLE’S FATHER.

DEAR HONOURED FATHER,

I write these few lines in hopes they will find you, my dear sisters and brother in good health, as for myself, I am as well as I can expect in my awful situation. Oh that I had kept better company. My dear brother I hope you will take warning by my untimely end, and attend the sabbath day, had I done so this would not have been my fate—Could it have been so as my life could have been spared, I would pay the duty I owe to my God. The Rev. Mr. Mitchell, of Leicester, attends me and my fellow prisoners and prays with us every day, that worthy Gentleman has made a deep impression on my mind, and I hope with true repentance through the merits of our blessed Saviour to enter everlasting life. O in a few days I shall be no more. Farewell, farewell, adieu, adieu, forever in this world!

I remain your unfortunate son,

W. TOWLE.

Condemned Cell, April 6, 1817.

6th April 1817: Major General Lyon reports to the Home Secretary on the state of Nottingham & Leicester during the recent execution and trials

Lichfield April 6—1817.

My Lord,

I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship that the only circumstance of any moment which has been reported to me since my letter of the 22d Ultm. is that considerable apprehensions had been entertained by the Magistrates in Nottingham that a serious disturbance would take place in that town on the 30 Ultm. and on the following day. Every Military precaution was in consequence taken to preserve the public tranquillity and with the recommendation and desire of the Civil power additional Guards were mounted, the Detachment of the 15th Hussars was in readiness to turn out at a moments notice and the men of the 95th Regiment billeted in town were moved into the barracks until the alarm had entirely subsided.—

On the Wednesday morning fears were again entertained that the peace of the town would be interrupted as the execution of a Luddite was fixed for this day and his rescue was expected to be attempted by the populace.—

Arrangements both injudicious and satisfactory to the magistrates appear to have been made by Colonel Elliott Commanding of the 95th Regiment and I am happy to add that in consequence of these, notwithstanding the alarm and apprehension which existed no symptom whatever of disturbance manifested itself.—

The Assizes at Leicester have closed and I have much satisfaction in reporting that during the whole time of their sitting the town has remained perfectly quiet.—

The military were not called in aid of the Civil power in any way whatever excepting partys being required for the escorting of Prisoners to and from the Jail.—

I have the honor to be
My Lord
Your Lordships most
obedient and
very humble Servant

James Lyon
Maj Genl

[To] The Viscount Sidmouth
&c &c &c &c

Tuesday, 4 April 2017

4th April 1817: Charles Mundy tells the Home Secretary that Thomas Savage is disclosing more information

Private

Burton April 4th 1817

My Lord

Since I had the Honour of addressing your Lordship this morning I have been to the County Gaol at Leicester and have had an interview with Thomas Savage at his request. He states that he is intimate with Grosvenor Henson & all the principal malcontents at Nottingham including Frank Ward. he says at the time he was apprehended he was perfectly in possession of the knowledge of where their correspondence might have been got possession of between Grosvenor Henson, Major Cartwright Mr. Dennison and my unfortunately misguided relation Sir Francis Burdett. Many of which letters especially those between the former of the three Gentlemen & Grosvenor Henson go as Savage states to a treasonable extent. he likewise states in general terms that he could give very useful information to Government on all these points. that the object of these people is nothing short of a Revolution & that it is his opinion a strong attempt will be made at it. that many of the persons styled religious missionaries are in fact delegates from seditious associations. He says he thinks Grosvenor Henson equal to the perpetration of any thing that even Robespierre committed.—

Savage is a sensible well educated man talks cleverly & well calculated for a leading man in a committee of working manufacturers.—he has been chiefly a committee man we have no account of him as an executive man in any other outrage that at Loughborough which like all others he says was plannd by Frank Ward. I did not think proper to encourage him too much for fear of raising false hopes in the mind of this poor man. I shall therefore wait your Lordships instructions before I proceed further in talking with him he says it is very possible that the purpose to which he alludes may be removed since he was taken into custody.—as the usual day of execution at Leicester if no alteration takes place would arrive on monday the fourteenth of this month I have thought it best to lose no time in making this communication to your Lordship I therefore avail myself of Captain [Giradot] of the Coldstream Guards who is going to Town to convey this letter to your Lordship as the post has been gone many Hours & there is none tomorrow. thinking it right to lay the contents of this letter before your Lordship though it is probable you may be in possession of all this man can communicate from other quarters.

I have [etc]

C. G. Mundy

[To] The Right Honourable
Lord Sidmouth

4th April 1817: The reported death of Daniel Diggle's mother - an example of 19th century 'fake news'

In the days following Daniel Diggle's execution, several regional newspapers reported that his mother has died two days later, on Friday 4th April 1817 of 'excessive grief'.

I have as yet been unable to pin down the source of this story, but the precise date derives from the Gentleman's magazine, an aggregator of news stories, which can be found online here.

In fact, Diggle's mother was called Sarah Diggle (nee Rhodes) and had married William Johnson Diggle in 1793. Genealogical records show that she didn't die in 1817, but was buried at St Leodegarius at Basford on 24th June 1827, aged 65. William died in 1841.

Sunday, 2 April 2017

2nd April 1817: Threatening letter sent to Derby Town Clerk

Mr E Ward
Town Clerk
Derby
Private

Stir not from Derby till the 22 April or else your life will suffer for your rashness as the Luddites will lay wait for you—but after the 22 the last die will be cast and either the Luddites or the military will have the Command—despise not this advice but keep the letter secret.

April 2.

2nd April 1817: The execution of Daniel Diggle, at Nottingham

The header from a broadsheet published to mark the occasion of Daniel Diggle's execution on 2nd April 1817 The full broadsheet can be seen here,

On Wednesday 2nd April 1817, Daniel Diggle was executed in front of the Shire Hall in Nottingham. The two local newspapers each gave a report.

The Nottingham Review of 4th April 1817:
EXECUTION
Of Daniel Diggle, for shooting at George Kerry. 
Wednesday being the day appointed for the execution of Daniel Diggle, who had been convicted at our last Assizes, of shooting at Kerry, he was brought forth from the county gaol to the front of the hall, about eight o'clock in the morning, where a temporary gallows had been erected; and, notwithstanding it was at so early a period, and no public information had been given of any alteration being made as to time or place, a vast concourse of people assembled to witness the tragic scene. Diggle, with considerable fortitude, addressed the multitude—acknowledged his crime, and deeply lamented his having slighted the salutary admonitions of his parents; and particularly deplored his having been associated with Luddites, which, he said, had him to this unhappy situation. While under sentence of death, he was visited by Dr. Wood, the Chaplain of the prison; also by several dissenting ministers, whose exhortations and prayers, as far as we can judge, were rendered very beneficial in preparing him for his awful end. 
The following document has been handed to us by a Clergyman, who occasionally visited Diggle, and may be depended on as genuine:—
The rest of the report contained Daniel Diggle's alleged confession of the day before his execution.

The Nottingham Journal (from the Leicester Journal of 11th April 1817):
EXECUTION OF D. DIGGLE.

On Wednesday morning, the 2d instant, Daniel Diggle suffered the awful sentence of the law, on a temporary gallows, erected in the front of the county gaol, at Nottingham, conformably to his sentence at the last assizes. This unfortunate man was a native of Basford, near Nottingham, and was convicted of shooting at George Kerry, in his dwelling house in the parish of Radford, (in company with two other persons, who are still at large), on the evening of Sunday the 22d of December last, with intent to kill and murder him—From the time the decision of the Judge was made known to him, his only anxiety appeared to be how he might best prepare himself for another world. He fully admitted his guilt; and his sorrow and contrition, not only on account of the crime for which he suffered, but the numerous other errors of his past life, was apparently deep and sincere. He conducted himself to the last moment with becoming resignation, and we trust, by the attentions  paid to him by the Reverend Chaplain, and another worthy divine, who had daily visited him, he left the world supported by rational hope of mercy, through the all sufficient merits of a crucified Redeemer. About 8 o'clock the culprit was brought forth through the County Hall door, in a light cart, along the platform raised on the steps, under the fatal tree. He appeared firm and collected, and addressing himself to the numerous spectators, said, it was "Ludding" that had brought him to that untimely end:—he expressed his regret that he had neglected the good advice given him by his parents, and that he had not abandoned his wicked courses in time to avert the dreadful fate that awaited him, and exhorted all present to take warning by his untimely end. After a few minutes spent in prayer, the cart was drawn off, and he was launched into eternity.—His last words were, "Lord have mercy upon my soul!"—After hanging the usual time, his body was cut down, and delivered to his friends for interment. He was a stout good looking man, but extremely illiterate, had just attained his 21st year, and had not long been married.

The particulars of the trial of Diggle have been already published; but since it may be gratifying to some persons to possess some short notice of his Prison Thoughts, a friend who visited him during the last week of his life, has furnished us with the following particulars:—

On his first interview with the prisoner, he appeared rather unconcerned, but a degree of mutual reserve seemed to account in some measure for the circumstance. In all my subsequent visits he conversed frankly on the events of his past life; and manifested a degree of contrition (especially in his devotions), which was very becoming his awful situation.—Whenever he adverted to his contempt of the advice of his parents, he was very deeply affected.

We he mentioned Luddism, which was frequently the case, he severely reprobated a system, in which he had latterly been an active, though a subordinate agent; and he remarked with a feeling severity, upon the guilty guilt and cruelty of the secret promoters of that practice, whom he declared that he considered equally criminal with himself.

On the Monday before he suffered, he had formed the resolution of speaking freely on the subject of Luddism and his other crimes, from the scaffold; but fearing that his feelings might possibly prevent him, he desired that his sentiments might be written down, and published after his execution.

The following is the confession he earnestly desired might be published:—
...and the Journal also ended the article with Diggle's alleged confession.

The Nottingham Review of Friday 11th April gave a line to report Diggle's burial, which took place on the evening of the same day:
Diggle's body was removed from the County Hall, by his friends, to Basford; and on the same evening was interred in the church yard of that place, amidst an innumerable throng of spectators.
However, despite the report in the Nottingham Review, there doesn't appear to be any record of Diggle's burial in the Basford Parish Registers. It looks as if Diggle's burial was simply unrecorded and we may never know where his remains lie.

Diggle had married his wife, Catherine or Kitty Cockram in 1816 and their daughter, Sarah Ann, was christened at Basford on 10th August 1817.

I am indebted to the historian & genealogist Lesley Abernethy for researching Diggle's family history.

Saturday, 1 April 2017

1st April 1817: Jeffrey Lockett informs the Home Secretary of the result of the Luddite trials

My Lord

Tho’ my feelings are greatly agitated by the awful scene which I have just witnessed, I have the satisfaction which is inseparable from the successful discharge of the most important public duty, in submitting to your Lordship, the result of the trials of the Luddite prisoners,—Eight have been capitally convicted, & received sentence of death;—one (John Clarke) has been convicted under the framebreaking act and is sentenced to transportation for life;—and the tenth, being seized with convulsive fits during the trial, and reported by a physician & surgeon incapable of attending to his defence, is remanded to prison.

I have only to express my sincere hope and & confident expectation that these proceedings, followed up by measures which your Lordship may think proper to adopt, will completely extinguish the Luddite conspiracy, a restore tranquillity & security to the Midland Counties.

I have [etc]

Wm Jeffery Lockett
Leicester Apl 1st, 1817. At Night.

1st April 1817: "I, Daniel Diggle..." - Daniel Diggle's confession

I, Daniel Diggle, being about to suffer death, and fearing that I may not be able to unburthen my mind at the place of execution, have requested a friend to write down the following remarks and confessions, to be made public after my decease.

I freely acknowledge my guilt with respect to the particular crime for which I am to suffer; yet I declare, that when I entered Kerry’s house, I had no intention of taking away his life, and that I never thought of injuring him, until he seized Woolley.

I also acknowledge that I was guilty of the attack upon Lord Middleton's gamekeeper, and that I have been engaged in most of the framebreakings, which have taken place in this neighbourhood during this last eight months: but I never was engaged in Luddism, previous to that time: I do not however, publicly mention the names of my associates, as it is my most anxious hope, that they will take warning from my unhappy fate, and escape the miseries and disgrace which I now experience.

I would exhort with the earnestness of a dying man, not only my immediate companions, but all who have been engaged in Luddism, to break off from practices, which only involve themselves, and others, in trouble and ruin. When they observe a young man just 21 years of age, and who has only been married about as many weeks, brought to the scaffold, by those very practices—when they see the anguish of my afflicted wife and parents—when they pass by the church-yard of Basford, and observe the graves of Bamford, Towle, and myself—and when they consider the perilous state of those now confined in Leicester gaol, surely they will forsake their wicked course, and all who may have furnished money, or liquor, as an incentive incentive to crime, will be induced to repent of their cruelty. We have been often told that Luddism would benefit trade, but I most earnestly beseech all my acquaintance, as the last request I shall ever make of them, to consider it, as leading, insensibly, to the commission of the worst crimes, even murder itself.

Almost the only comfort that I now experience, is that the life of an innocent man was not sacrificed; and as I consider Kerry, and those who gave evidence against me, as instruments in the hand of Almighty God, in bringing me to justice, it would greatly increase my present sufferings, could I suppose that any should bear them ill will, or malice, on my account.

I feel very grateful to Lord Middleton for his tenderness towards my brother; and I confidently hope from the change of mind which took place in Nathan, whilst he was in prison, that there will be no occasion to bring him a second time before a bar of justice.

If any who have visited me in prison, have fought from my silence and reserve, that I did not feel my situation sufficiently, I can assure them that I now weep bitterly for my crimes, and fervently implore forgiveness at the tribunal of HIM, who once pardoned a dying criminal, and who will not, I hope condemn me, although so guilty a sinner, "TO THE BITTER PAINS OF ETERNAL DEATH."

Witness, THOMAS WRIGHT.

DANIEL DIGGLE.

County Gaol, Nottingham, Tuesday, April 1, 1817.